This string contains a sequence of angle-bracket delimited tags, with chunking indicated by braces. decode(encoding='UTF-8',errors='strict') Parameters. Thus, (string-reverse "this is a string") should return "gnirts a si siht". NET program that uses Replace to remove substrings Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim value As String = "cat Remove dog Remove bird" ' We can use Replace to remove all instances of a substring. Definition and Usage. #!/usr/bin/perl # # get_iplayer - Lists, Records and Streams BBC iPlayer TV and Radio programmes + other Programmes via 3rd-party plugins # # Copyright (C) 2008-2010. See the description of TO_BASE64() for details about the encoding and decoding rules. encode (self, encodings) Encode the unicode using the specified encoding. A null open/close returns null (no match). 0 did, and most changes have full backwards compatibility. So, each string is just a sequence of Unicode code points. Decode String Recursively An encoded string is given. surface substrings. This document defines constructor functions, operators, and functions on the datatypes defined in [XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Second Edition] and the datatypes defined in [XQuery and XPath Data Model (XDM) 3. With OpenSSL we can provide passphrase and an eight byte salt value, and then derive the Key and IV (Initalisation Vector). convert_uuencode() It is used to encode a string using the uuencode algorithm. Thus, (string-reverse "this is a string") should return "gnirts a si siht". When this option is checked, a decoder is applied on the value before it is placed in the variable. 142 143 All other slices and arrays are sent as an unsigned count followed by that many 144 elements using the standard gob encoding for their type, recursively. I also guide them in doing their final year projects. It is not usually used by itself, but in concert with other forms of compression, usually as the final 'pass' in the compression algorithm. parseParams - parse query string paramaters into an object - jquery. The default encoding for Python source code is UTF-8, so you can simply include a Unicode character in a string literal:. (Pommef provided another sample function for this purpose below, but I believe it is incorrect. count(' ')) Splits string at all (or num) NEWLINEs and returns a list of each line with NEWLINEs removed. For a list of all encoding schemes please visit. By the way: if I remember correctly, each character in a String is stored as a char, so a String like "101" would require 6 bytes, not 3 (plus pointers to the Class object, etc etc). Prior to joining Electric Cloud, John was a Venture Consultant with Accel Partners, VP of Internet Technology at Interwoven, Inc. Write a procedure that reverses the letters in a string. In our other article, Encoding and Decoding Strings (in Python 2. Recursive patterns are described in the next section. In the future we might add something like this: When converting filenames to the native operating system format, implementations are encouraged, but not required, to convert otherwise invalid characters or character sequences to valid characters or character sequences. String Functions and Operators. If not found, 0 is returned. Need to find out the range of the nested segment by counting '[ ]' pairs. If substring exists inside the string, it returns the index of first occurence of the substring. If the condition is the string (R), it is satisfied if a recursive call to the pattern or subpattern has been made. [\s\S]*\/%1$s>|\s*\/>)', tag_escape( $tag ) ); } /** * Retrieve a canonical form of the provided charset appropriate for passing to PHP * functions such as. Convert string to the database encoding. Find Mode in Binary Search Tree. Revise encode-message and decode-message, so only a cipher alphabet must be supplied by the use. Formats data string according to format string @HTMLDECODE. The pattern in which the strings are encoded is as follows: [substr] means that the substring 'substr' appears count times. If open == closed, then we have to add open parenthesis. Given a position p with a UTF-8 encoded string str, find the start of the previous UTF-8 character starting before p. strobogrammatic number 2 31. Unfortunately, as far as I can tell, the PHP devs did not provide ANY way to set the default encoding used by htmlspecialchars() or htmlentities(), even though they changed the default encoding in PHP 5. The string being converted. Attempts are made to check that the mode of the values passed match the format supplied, and R 's special values (NA, Inf, -Inf and NaN) are handled correctly. Strings, lists, and tuples Note that a string is a substring of itself, and the empty string is a substring of any other string. convert_uudecode() It is used to decode a uuencoded string. One effect of these rules is that - bareword is equivalent to the string "-bareword". split_into() can be useful for grouping a series of items where the sizes of the groups are not uniform. Decodes a hex-encoded string to a string. x, and how it is different. 5 due to cross platform compatibility issues between Windows and Mac OS X (only Ma. 3 Sequences. String substring(Edm. String provides replace() method to replace a specific character or a string which occures first. View all of your activity on GeeksforGeeks here. Push every thing that is not "]" to the string. This Java String tutorial provides knowledge of essential features of java. findall() to find all substrings in a string that match a pattern. 13) Given two strings, s and t, find the first occurrence of s in t. endswith Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. However, if the e (for "extract") parameter is specified, REGEXP_INSTR returns the begin or end character offset for the part of the subject that matches the first sub-expression in the pattern. Both the random access and rewriting protocols were tested experimentally on two jointly stored text files. Interview question for Software Engineer. An array B is contained in an array A if all elements in B are contained in any element in A. This behavior is deprecated as of PHP 7. Count of Smaller Numbers After Self Encode and Decode Strings Solve Leetcode Problems. Note: subphrase refers to encoded_string, that is, a substring inside a pair brackets. New in version 2. The latter are created by `subtracting' terminal rules from each other. Algorithm: 1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 CentOS Linux 3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 CentOS Linux 4 Oracle Linux 4 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 CentOS Linux 5 Oracle Linux 5 Unspecified vulnerability in the Infiniband dissector in Wireshark 1. The primitive data types that you have been using are supplemented in Java by extensive libraries of reference types that are tailored for a large variety of applications. See the description of TO_BASE64() for details about the encoding and decoding rules. /* * Copyright (C) 2014 The Android Open Source Project * Copyright (c) 1994, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. Each string in the above. However, if the e (for "extract") parameter is specified, REGEXP_SUBSTR returns the the part of the subject that matches the first group in the pattern. Dynamically-sized types like string, bytes or uint[] are encoded without their length field. A jq program is a “filter”: it takes an input, and produces an output. So the reverse of a string is the last character, followed by the reverse of everything but the last character, which is where the recursion comes in. Minimum version. string-any, string-every — tail call to predicate on the last character (if that point is reached) The above are just core functions and special forms. ;; Author: Mario Lang ;; Version: 0. Returns the position of the N-th instance of substring in string starting from the end of the string. This is also knows as Run Length Encoding. Example: Input aaabcc Output a3b1c2. It defaults to the default string encoding. In the end, he was forced, by a website project, into doing something about it. _rand_gm, where m=0,1,2 – the groups matching rand. Run-Length Decoding Run-length encoding is a relatively simple technique for compressing data; if a particular value (or substring) appears multiple times in a row, it is only represented once, followed by an integer indicating the number of times it should be repeated. "123" in "121123"). Convert the string to a run-length encoded (RLE) string of characters and numbers. , a=1, b=2, , z=26), and a sequence of numbers (e. Originally, HTML was primarily designed as a language for semantically describing scientific documents. Depending on the encoding used, converting binary data to string format with the encoding classes can introduce unexpected behavior and produce inaccurate or corrupted data. Run length encoding is a compression technique that takes advantage of repeated consecutive digits. Backtracking is trying out all possibilities using recursion, exactly like bruteforce. String Functions Like every programming language, Javascript has created and calling functions. CS 261 Homework 7 - Huffman Encoding and Decoding Due Mon Apr 14 at 11:59pm Overview. The present invention relates to a leading-zero counter, a method to count leading zeros and a corresponding computer program product. String源码。在此基础上添加自己的注释,偷懒了,用来加深印象吧。英语不好,没有翻译,不理解的方法直接百度的。. An encoded string is given. Python string method decode() decodes the string using the codec registered for encoding. August 04, 2017 It will be followed until there is only 1 node (root ). 1) Let the given string be 'str' and length of string be 'n'. For example, under this scheme this. This can be a chore since language creators don't implement any. Stegosploit's encoding process only affects the pixel data stored with the JPG file. 11 String The standard defines a string of n (numbered 0 through n-1) ASCII bytes to be the number n encoded as an unsigned integer (as described above), and followed by the n bytes of the string. sp In particular, \fBauto\-copy\fP will only select "safe" modes (although potentially slower than other methods), but there\(aqs still no guarantee the chosen hardware decoder will actually work correctly. 322 * 323 * @param ascii 324 * The bytes to be converted to characters 325 * 326 * @param hibyte 327 * The top 8 bits of each 16-bit Unicode code unit 328 * 329 * @param offset 330 * The initial offset 331 * @param count 332 * The length 333 * 334 * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException 335 * If the {@code offset} or {@code count} argument is. For example, the string "g\u0308o" represents a g with combining diaeresis, followed by the letter o. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. If element is assigned, then run assign slotables for element’s assigned slot. -decode就是找 " # ",然后用 " # " 前的数字截取后面的string. There are a number of simple functions such as lc and uc to return the lower case and upper case versions of the original string respectively. x works with string encoding. nan (followed by an optional sequence of characters) to represent NaNs (Not-a-Number). Count nodes within K-distance from all nodes in a set; Minimum number of edges between two vertices of a Graph; Decode a string recursively encoded as count followed by substring; Merge Two Binary Trees by doing Node Sum (Recursive and Iterative) Multistage Graph (Shortest Path) Print common nodes on path from root (or common ancestors). Count number of sub string recursively Algorithms, String 3 mins read. The Request-URI is transmitted as an encoded string, where some characters may be escaped using the "% hex hex" encoding defined by RFC 1738 [4]. pdf - Free download as PDF File (. The UNIX Shell is a component of terminal-based UNIX-derived systems which offers both a command-line interface for running system commands, as well as programming interface for intelligently automating tasks which use system commands. To tackle this issue, we present a new suffix tree encoding fixing the distribution. parseparams. PHP urlencode is an inbuilt function in PHP. x includes/unicode. The bytes type in Python is immutable and stores a sequence of values ranging from 0-255 (8-bits). An empty ("") open/close returns null (no match). Similarly, we can decode an encoded string. As many digits are written as needed to represent the integral part, followed by the decimal-point character and six decimal digits. each character in the string is represented by a code point. It is not yet considered ready to be promoted as a complete task, for reasons that should be found in its talk page. string = “move these spaces to beginning” output =” movethesepacestobeginning” Solution: 1) Maintain two indices i and … Read More →. Semi-supervised recursive autoencoders for predicting sentiment distributions Richard Socher , Jeffrey Pennington , Eric H. Code Practice and Mentorship for Everyone. Often we want a kind of string. Assume the string that is passed is the entire string- no offset. The default encoding for Python source code is UTF-8, so you can simply include a Unicode character in a string literal:. John holds BA and MA degrees in Mathematics and Computation and a Doctorate in. First, built in functions don't need to be registered because Pig knows where they are. John Graham-Cumming is Co-Founder at Electric Cloud, Inc. The original encoding is specified by src_encoding. This can be a chore since language creators don't implement any. The format was borrowed from the DWARF3 specification. With the appropriate StringBuilder Append overload, we append a part of another string. Further String Processing. @newbie Thank you, good catch. The decode function takes an encoding tree and an encoded string and produces a decoded string as. View all of your activity on GeeksforGeeks here. In UNIX, a "man" command is issued; "kermit" is the default argument but other manual topics may be specified. The documentation string can be accessed from Emacs by running M-x describe-function and entering the name of the function when prompted. convert_from('text_in_utf8', 'UTF8') text_in_utf8 represented in the current database encoding: convert_to(string text, dest_encoding name) bytea: Convert string to dest_encoding. Now, how do you "bottom out"? That is, what is the trivial case you can solve without. Design the encode and decode methods for the TinyURL service. sp In general, it\(aqs very strongly advised to avoid hardware. , "23413259802"), how many strings can be generated. Source file src/encoding/json/ encode. Over the last few days we took a look at some string methods. In this article, we will dive deep into the fundamental of the String type, from the String Encoding to the Swift String API. You'll learn how to access and extract portions of strings, and also become familiar with the methods that are available to manipulate and modify string data in Python 3. The decoder must notice this to know when to stop. We learned in the previous chapter that there are eight types of variables: numeric, boolean, string, and so~on. Decodes a hex-encoded string to a string. Interface values are transmitted as a string identifying the concrete type being sent (a name that must be pre-defined by calling Register), followed by a byte count of the length of the following data (so the value can be skipped if it cannot be stored), followed by the usual encoding of concrete (dynamic) value stored in the interface value. Encoding name must be known to Perl Encode module. Encoding name must be known to Perl Encode module. Questions based from Java fundamentals like why String is Immutable in Java to questions based on coding skills e. [Ken Coar] *) When using Redirect in directory context, append requested query string if there's no one supplied by configuration. Limitations. encode the file's data (encodeData): Re-examine the source file's contents, and for each character, output the encoded binary version of that character to the destination file. Two main properties differentiate built in functions from user defined functions (UDFs). A null input String returns null. It will be very helpful if you include the string “[FO31]” in the subject line of your report, whether made in Bugzilla or in email. New in version 2. Description and Disadvantages of Prior Art. Its general design, however, has enabled it to be adapted, over the subsequent years, to describe a number of other types of documents and even applications. Encoding name must be known to Perl Encode module. There are a lot of builtin filters for extracting a particular field of an object, or converting a number to a string, or various other standard tasks. Minimum version. Character Encoding ImageMagick encodes strings in Unicode, more precisely in UTF-8. You just need to ensure that a URL can be encoded to a tiny URL and the tiny URL can be decoded to the original URL. The substring of this String object to be compared begins at index toffset and has length len. Decodes a hex-encoded string to a string. Decoding: Add the number of letters to a string. Note that such stripping might affect an external process at a different layer (such as a digital signature or a count of the characters) that is relying on the presence of all characters in the stream. Implement the `keep` and `discard` operation on collections. Arrays and Strings. That will efficiently match a nonempty group with matching parentheses two levels deep or less. Substring check Rabin-Karp Count entries in interval Given a spreadsheet column string like AA, AZ etc, decode it into its numeric value. Count s up to but not including first, The next string characters, after the is the binary representation of the length of , call this. For example, if we are to remove duplicates for geeksforgeeks and keep the order of characters same, then output should be geksfor, but above function returns efgkos. The default encoding for Python source code is UTF-8, so you can simply include a Unicode character in a string literal:. Limitations. Facebook muestra información para que entiendas mejor la finalidad de una página. Apply escaping to string to preserve special characters. Extract a. You may need to provide a constructor to build the tree from the input file, encodings. With that said, I can appreciate what you were probably trying to say in regards to the alphabet encoding/decoding stage for the Base64 algorithm but I would recommend stating it as such to avoid confusion. Example: Input aaabcc Output a3b1c2. In our other article, Encoding and Decoding Strings (in Python 2. substring with concatenation of all words Encode and Decode String. The task is to decode the given string. This includes any functionality requiring access at a specific index, since random access is not possible in a string whose number of bytes will not necessarily match the number of characters. The result was the algorithm presented in this note and. There are a number of simple functions such as lc and uc to return the lower case and upper case versions of the original string respectively. Further String Processing. org/show_bug. A string in this module is represented by unicode:chardata(), that is, a list of codepoints, binaries with UTF-8-encoded codepoints (UTF-8 binaries), or a mix of the two. Moving on to structure, you can actually revise your algorithm to do away with k, and make the substring logic simpler. I also guide them in doing their final year projects. Decode a string recursively encoded as count followed by substring; Lexicographically smallest substring with maximum occurrences containing a's and b's only; Count occurrences of a word in string; Count of occurrences of a "1(0+)1" pattern in a string; Count occurrences of a character in a repeated string; Longest substring with count of 1s. PR 543, 2389, 3581, 3589, 5687, 7066, 7865, 14639. The method takes a third argument which limits the replacements to a certain number. Given an encoded string, return it's decoded string. A sequence is an ordered collection of values. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. A substring of this String object is compared to a substring of the argument other. You just need to ensure that a URL can be encoded to a tiny URL and the tiny URL can be decoded to the original URL. start (Optional) - starting index within the string where search starts. Takes a string encoded with the base-64 encoded rules used by TO_BASE64() and returns the decoded result as a binary string. The Array ADT. " No it's a way of representing one value in a way a system can more easily handle in a hopefully lossless fashion. The body of a command has an optional documentation string, followed by a call to interactive, followed by the code which executes when the command is invoked. Decode String Recursively An encoded string is given. * table lookup. When not to use shell scripts Resource-intensive tasks, especially where speed is a factor (sorting, hashing, recursion [2]) Procedures involving heavy-duty math operations, especially floating point arithmetic, arbitrary precision calculations, or complex numbers (use C++ or FORTRAN instead). Chapter 6 Strings 6. The task is to decode the given string. The decoder doesn’t look at the. Encoding and decoding are inverse. Encoding involves putting a character followed by RLE Encoding/Decoding using simple C concept. Convert string to the database encoding. Give a string s, count the number of non-empty (contiguous) substrings that have the same number of 0's and 1's, and all the 0's and all the 1's in these substrings are grouped consecutively. sub − This is the substring to be searched. Python provides string methods that allows us to chop a string up according to delimiters that we can specify. convert_from('text_in_utf8', 'UTF8') text_in_utf8 represented in the current database encoding: convert_to(string text, dest_encoding name) bytea: Convert string to dest_encoding. drupal_ucfirst: Capitalizes the first letter of a UTF-8 string. Given a string ,Write a program to print letter followed by it’s frequency. All other types are assumed to be contained in each other if they are equal. This can be a chore since language creators don't implement any. 2) Now the problem reduces to find a palindromic substring of length n in str. You can get the value of a single byte by using an index like an array, but the values can not be modified. With OpenSSL we can provide passphrase and an eight byte salt value, and then derive the Key and IV (Initalisation Vector). Implement an efficient algorithm. If value is null or the empty string, then set element’s name to the empty string. This Oracle tutorial explains how to use the Oracle / PLSQL INSTR function with syntax and examples. The number of ways. encode :: String -> (Tree,String) decode :: (Tree,String) -> String to serve as the top-level interface to your Huffman coding routines. // Find k'th character of decrypted string // Given an encoded string where repetitions of substrings are represented as substring followed by count of substrings. Base case : if the string has no repeatitive phrases, just return the string Subphrase case : if you find the starting of a subphrase (a number followed by an opening bracket), recursively decode that subphrase. For example, Given encoded message "12" , it could be decoded as "AB" (1 2) or "L" (12). Given an encoded string, return it's decoded string. Here is a sketch of a recursive procedure realizing the syntax analysis and semantic evaluation for E'. How do I encode and. Problem 1: Run Length Encoding & Decoding (30%) Run Length Encoding (RLE) is a simple compression technique where “runs” of 2 or more consecutive occurrences a certain character are represented by a single instance of that character followed by the integer count of how many times that character occurred. PROGRAM IN C 1. String Functions Like every programming language, Javascript has created and calling functions. a string is encoded as a long followed by that many bytes of UTF-8 encoded character data. The series began with the lesson entitled Understanding the Lempel-Ziv Data Compression Algorithm in Java (commonly known as LZ77). Two main properties differentiate built in functions from user defined functions (UDFs). The pattern in which the strings are encoded is as follows. Decode String Recursively An encoded string is given. The function returns the specified root task as the first entry, followed by the list of child tasks. The encode function takes a string as input, encodes it, and returns the encoding tree and the encoded string. PHP explode Function is an inbuilt string function of PHP. For example, if encrypted string is "ab2cd2″ and k=4 , so output will be 'b' because decrypted string is "ababcdcd" and 4th character is 'b'. huff"; private HuffmanNode < Byte > root; /** * Builds a Huffman tree suitable for encoding the given byte array. So, I've written a very simple JSONObject class, which can be generically used to encode/decode data into a simple container. Given a position p with a UTF-8 encoded string str, find the start of the previous UTF-8 character starting before p. ) So this string is number 53 in the list and so it will be encoded by the binary expansion of 53 which is 110101. by replacing them with % sign followed by two hex digits. Arrays and Strings. View all of your activity on GeeksforGeeks here. An array B is contained in an array A if all elements in B are contained in any element in A. huff"; private HuffmanNode < Byte > root; /** * Builds a Huffman tree suitable for encoding the given byte array. A data type is a set of values and a set of operations defined on those values. Simple and Fast!. The result is true if these substrings represent character sequences that are the same, ignoring case if and only if ignoreCase is true. PHP explode Function is an inbuilt string function of PHP. For example, if we are to remove duplicates for geeksforgeeks and keep the order of characters same, then output should be geksfor, but above function returns efgkos. Given a string ,Write a program to print letter followed by it's frequency. The substring of this String object to be compared begins at index toffset and has length len. Recursive step: each time we count number of open parenthesis and closed parenthesis. SLAX has a number of built-in functions which are also covered. Using the indexOf() Method to Find All Occurrences of the Letter e in a Sentence : String « Language Basics « JavaScript DHTML. Description and Disadvantages of Prior Art. MimeUtility This is a utility class that provides various MIME related functionality. Given encoded message 12, it could be decoded as AB (1 2) or L (12). (IWOV), VP of Engineering at Scriptics Corporation (acquired by Interwoven), and Chief Architect at Optimal Networks, Inc. The encoded string is then sent over the network and is decoded back to the original list of strings. an inline view that contains correlation referring to other tables that precede it in the FROM clause). For example, the three-character string "foo" would be encoded as the long value 3 (encoded as hex 06 ) followed by the UTF-8 encoding of 'f', 'o', and 'o' (the hex bytes 66 6f 6f ):. You can access the characters one at a time with the bracket operator: >>> fruit = 'banana' >>> letter = fruit[1] The second statement extracts the character at index position 1 from the fruit variable and assigns it to letter variable. The rules are created in two stages, rst creating terminal rules, followed by nonter-minal rules. The Oracle / PLSQL INSTR function returns the location of a substring in a string. pdf - Free download as PDF File (. In other words, there will never be a duplicate letter added to the new string. The decode function takes an encoding tree and an encoded string and produces a decoded string as. Convert string to the database encoding. The substrings are expanded in place. Chapter 6 Strings 6. The string being converted. splitByCharacterType() Splits the current String by character type and returns a list of contiguous character groups of the same type as complete tokens. Binary Tree Paths. parseParams - parse query string paramaters into an object - jquery. replaceAll() method replaces a specific character or a string at each occurence. The sequence is a powerful, fundamental abstraction in computer science. We're mainly going to illustrate the new Java 8 APIs as well as the utility APIs coming out of. The substring of this String object to be compared begins at index toffset and has length len. Convert encoded text into a decoded string using these free online encoder and decoder utilities. How to extract a substring from a string by index. Similarly, it must be either at the end of the line or followed by a non-word constituent character. OSC Type Tag String. And if it is "]" we need to rewind to find the corresponding (closest) numbers and "[". By the way: if I remember correctly, each character in a String is stored as a char, so a String like "101" would require 6 bytes, not 3 (plus pointers to the Class object, etc etc). So, each string is just a sequence of Unicode code points. Such data cannot be transmitted over some transport protocols. surface substrings. convert_uuencode() It is used to encode a string using the uuencode algorithm. If you’re looking for the highest efficiency (like django), you’ll want something like the following. Java Data Type How to - Java String Example. Returns the position of the N-th instance of substring in string starting from the end of the string. ;; Author: Mario Lang ;; Version: 0. The conversion names follow a standard naming scheme: The official name of the source encoding with all non-alphanumeric characters replaced by underscores followed by _to_ followed by the equally processed destination encoding name. el --- Retrieve and decode METAR weather information ;; Copyright (C) 2007, 2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc. John holds BA and MA degrees in Mathematics and Computation and a Doctorate in. Need to find out the range of the nested segment by counting '[ ]' pairs. LeetCode – Decode String (Java) this problem is convert the string to a structured data structure and. See the description of TO_BASE64() for details about the encoding and decoding rules. expandtabs (self, /[, tabsize]). A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a resource address on the world wide web. The result is NULL if the argument is NULL or not a valid base-64 string. expression is the value to compare. ComVisible(true)] public class UTF8Encoding: Encoding { /* bytes bits UTF-8 representation ----- ---- ----- 1 7 0vvvvvvv 2 11 110vvvvv 10vvvvvv 3 16 1110vvvv 10vvvvvv 10vvvvvv 4 21 11110vvv 10vvvvvv 10vvvvvv 10vvvvvv ----- ---- ----- Surrogate: Real Unicode value = (HighSurrogate - 0xD800) * 0x400 + (LowSurrogate - 0xDC00) + 0x10000 */ private. Each LEB128 encoded value consists of one to five bytes, which together represent a single 32-bit value. The function returns the specified root task as the first entry, followed by the list of child tasks. type encoderState struct {enc *Encoder: b *encBuffer: sendZero bool // encoding an array element or map key/value pair; send zero values. SQL String Functions and Operators. Substrings that occur multiple times are counted the number of times they occur.